98th Gebirgsjäger Regiment
Military Mountaineering and Training
This is where a new rekruit can find helpful information about mountain climbing techniques used by the
German Mountain Infantry Forces.  Additionally it will provide information on terms, definitions, and
equipment used during the early days of mountain climbing.  The mountain climbing era of 1890 to 1950
was vastly different to the techniques and equipment used today.  This time period saw many new
innovations and discoveries by adventurers and explorers seeking better, easier ways to ascend rock cliffs,
snow capped peaks, and how to safely guide large teams through the mountains.  Military mountaineering is
not about "1st Ascents" and "Peak Bagging".  It is a way to safely and efficiently move military forces over
mountainous terrain while achieving the goal of tactical superiority/overwhelming force combined with
sufficient supply and reinforcement.  In short; it is about surprising your enemy where he least expects it
and winning battles in dangerous hostile terrain.

WEBPAGE updated - March 26, 2014, check back soon!
Mountaineering
Terms and Definitions
Mountaineering
Equipment
Ablation Zone: area of a glacier where the ice melt meets or exceeds the annual snow fall.
Abseil / Rappel: to descend using rope and equipment.
Aid or Aid Climbing: techniques where the use of anchors and ropes are integrated into the climb and exclusively used to "aid" a climber in the ascent.
Alpine Start: to make an efficient/early start on a long climb by packing all your gear the evening before and starting out early, usually before sunrise.
Altitude Sickness: a medical condition occurring at high altitudes also known as "Acute Mountain Sickness" (AMS) similar to H.A.P.E.
Anchor: an arrangement of one or more pieces of equipment to support the weight of a belay or top rope (for safety).
Approach: the path or route to the start of a technical climb; though generally a walk or boulder scramble, it can be potentially as dangerous as the climb.
Arete: a small ridge-like feature on a rock face.
Ascent: to climb or go up. ie - Ascending the crest.
Barn-Door: to climb with only one hand and foot causing a climber to uncontrollably swing outwards away from the rock like a barn-door
Bail: to retreat or quit a climb without achieving the summit.
Belay: to protect a climber by tying in to the safety rope.
Bergschrund: a crevasse that forms on the upper portion of a glacier where the moving section pulls away from the headwall.
Buttress: a prominent feature that juts out from a rock or mountain.
Cairn: a distinctive pile of stones to designate a trail or climb.
Chimney: a rock cleft with vertical sides, mostly parallel that a climber can wedge his body into and using isometric force climb up through.
Choss: loose or rotten rock.
Clawing: use of the front points of crampons (ice shoes), ice ax and ice hammer to climb an icy slope.
Clean: to remove protective anchors as 2nd man in lead climbing or to complete a climb without falling or using the rope as aid (see aid climbing/free
climbing).
Clipping In: the process of connecting to the safety rope - "On Belay".
Col: a small pass or saddle between two peaks.

                                                               
ENGLISH to GERMAN Climbing Commands

Climber Says: "On Belay!" = Sichern! (zishern) Belayer Responds:  "Belay On!" = Sichern Gemacht!
Climber Says: "Climbing!" = Ich Kletter! Belayer Responds:  "Climb On!" = Kletter Weiter!
Climber Says: "Up Rope!" = Zieh An! (see ahn = take in slack)  OR: "Give Me Slack!" = Seil! (zighl = rope)
Climber Says: "Keep Rope Tight!" = Zieh An Stark!
Climber Says: "Watch Me! = Zuschauen! (thinks he will fall)   Belayer Responds: "I Have You!" = Ich Habe Dich (dish)!
Climber Says: "Off Belay!" = Aussicher!     Belayer Responds:  "Belay Off!" = Sicheraus! (zisher ows)
Adze: a thin perpendicular part of the blade of an ice ax used for cutting steps in the
ice.
Ascender / Jumar: mechanical tool used for climbing up a single rope.
Mauerhaken/Piton: Thin vertical or horizontal pin used for anchoring into cracks.
Kletterhammer: Hammer used to nail the piton securely into flared cracks on the
rock.
Block/Wedge: A solid hexagonal piece or even a rock used as an anchor.
Bergschuhe: Specially made boots for mountain climbing.
Bergseil: Mountain Rope.
Cam
: a half-moon shaped piece of protective anchor that is springloaded into
position.
Schnappring/Carabiner: spring-gated snaplink used as a connector between the
rope and an anchor/belay - slang term is "beener".
Chalk: a magnesium carbonate compound used to enhance a climber's grip.
Chock: a mechanical or angular/hexagonal wedge used to slip behind a crack or
between two rocks to use as an anchor.
Schnappring: German term for carabiner.
Schutzenbriller/Schneebriller: Snow Goggles
Eispickel: Ice Ax
Reepschnurschlingen: Short rope slings/runners used to extend anchors around
rocks.
Mauer: German term meaning "WALL".
Wand: German term meaning "FACE" of a climb, example: NORDWAND =
"Northface".
Zeltbahn: Tent (pronounced with an "S", example: "SELLTBONN").
Steigeisen: German term for "Crampons" = spiked ice-climbing aids that attach to
boots.
Seilschaft: Climbing brotherhood/your climbing partner.
"BERG HEIL": Term of endearment/encouragement spoken to fellow climber on a climb "well done".

"Immer Weiter Machen": Always Moving Forward = the motto of the 98th Gebirgsjäger Reenactors.
Photo courtesy of "Bruno" and Project Edelweiss